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11.08.2022
 
   
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במשפט הבינ"ל. ברמה העליונה, קיימות נורמות מוחלטות לא ניתן להפר אותן או להתנות עליהן

מאת: א.ע עאו'ץ תורת המשפט27/03/20091708 צפיות שתף בטוויטר |   שתף בפייסבוק

Roll of the United Nations is not at all relate to minorities - the central concept behind this approach is to achieve a stable company has to keep the human rights to adopt the principles of equality and discrimination, such as these may only guarantee the stability desired.

 

Universal Declaration on Human Rights, 1948: (UDHR) Declaration on Human Rights not received proposals regarding inclusion of the section handler minorities, in violation of the declaration of the other General Assembly on the need to deal with the fate of minorities, especially during the post-World War II. Article 26 of the declaration reads L"k ידום understanding and tolerance between groups ... different race or religion. " Again, this expresses the belief that recognition of the rights of minorities could be dangerous to the stability and effective protection for the minorities can be achieved through protection of their friends. Declaration Concerning Article includes freedom of association, which includes freedom of the various groups, including minorities, to promote the ענייניהן a voluntary organization. Worthy of note that the moral validity of announcement but not much is international law requires, such as art that Israel signed the ratification of them.

 

Human rights

 

Convention Snhakka first is the Convention against genocide in 1948. (The Convention entered into force in 1951). Although the Convention deals with nations, specifically prohibits attempts to wipe out entire nations, it is not clear if this is right here to the Group.

Relevant treaty is the second International Convention of 65 'on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which entered into force in 1969. -CERD is the most important tool in the field of discrimination, particularly racial discrimination. ( "Race" is defined as the Convention is very broad and also includes national or ethnic groups). This is not a tool and not a group aiming explicitly refers to minorities, however, he approves special measures necessary to promote the purity of stock or ethnic groups and Article 4 of the Convention requires countries to adopt legislation, including penal legislation, to protect the "גזעים" or groups of individuals with skin color or Ethnicity unique because racist actions, and to prevent acts of creation on the basis of race hatred. Again, this treaty is not directly engaged in giving collective rights mechanisms, but mainly to ensure that there will be no discrimination of groups or ethnic purity of stock - usually in cases like this is gonna be in a minority, because most groups can usually protect their interests. But this was not the case, for example, in South Africa's Apartheid regime.

 

Relevant treaty is the Convention on Punishment of the Crime Lbior Apartheid adopted in 1973 which entered into force in 1976. Apartheid is a form of racial discrimination or national.

 

The two main conventions of human rights are the Convention on Civil and Political Rights and the ICCPR rights and social, economic and cultural ICSECR. Both adopted in 1967 and entered into force in 1976. Art ratification by Israel in 1992. Worthy of note that the two conventions Hmdgis opening section is the same as the right of peoples to self-determination. But the intention here is to self-determination in the context of the liberation struggle, the nations of colonial power. National minorities in the nation do not receive recognition.

 

The so-ICCPR also emphasizes, in light of the general trend described above, the nature of individual human rights, unlike the nature of their group. Article 27 of the Convention refers to a general reference for the rights of minorities qualified:

 

? In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own language?

 

"In those countries where there are ethnic minorities, religious or linguistic, not Isllo specifications minorities who are the right to maintain the תרבותם, hold and save בדתם Staff or use the language, together with other groups of friends"

According to most approaches, wording of Article 27 reflects the general tendency of the drafters of the Convention not to recognize the collective rights of minorities .1 unique interpretation maintains the light of the fact that this early experiment of the Convention refer to "minorities" to distinguish from "" Persons belonging to minorities emphasis of the fact that These are the rights of groups and members of the groups based themselves primarily on the fear that might cause a separatist Ntiot recognizing the rights group. It should be emphasized that this article discusses the ethnic minorities, religious or linguistic, and does not include reference to national minorities. This caution is based, as stated, take on a member of the minority regime הלאומים severe impact of insularity on the national minorities historical development in Europe.

 

Exact experiment and Egypt's Article 27 shows caution and withdrawal of recognition בחובתן countries to give recognition of minorities is not beyond the obligation of States to prevent them, in voluntary, to preserve the דתם, ותרבותם language.

 

Interpretations of the official bodies to section 27:

 

Interpretation of the Committee for Human Rights of the United Nations:

 

General comment 23 of the UN Human Rights Committee 2 is determined in relation to the interpretation that Article 27 of the Convention:

 

"Article 27 relates to rights whose protection imposes specific obligations on States parties. The protection of these rights is directed towards ensuring the survival and continued development of the cultural, religious and social identity of the minorities concerned, thus enriching the fabric of society as a whole "

 

Although article 27 is expressed in negative terms, that article, nevertheless, does recognize the existence of a "right" and requires that it shall not be denied. Consequently, a State party is under an obligation to ensure that the existence and the exercise of this right are protected against their denial or violation. Positive measures of protection are, therefore, required not only against the acts of the State party itself, whether through its legislative, judicial or administrative authorities, but also against the acts of other persons within the State party.

It seems that the approach of the Commission under Article 27 imposes no obligation on the state to intervene in the freedom of religion, culture, language of the minorities living there, but the obligation to non intervention has also a positive duty to act against the actions of state or other details of the limiting these freedoms. 3

 

In addition, states that the Committee comment on the states to take steps to ensure the effective participation in matters relating to life in the minority.

Interpretation of the UN Human Rights Committee put special emphasis on the rights of minorities that they were indigenous tribes.

 

Fourth UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) regarding the prevention of discrimination in education since 60 '(entered into force in May 1962) sale of rights to national minorities implement educational activities including the maintenance of schools and allows the use of minority language education (depending on education policy of each country). Section 2 (b) of the Convention than the maintenance, language or religious reasons, of separate educational systems. The access-UNESCO's recognition of showing "modest" collective minority rights in the sensitive area of education. Teaching on the need to recognize the right of minorities to conduct their educational operations are subject to three conditions:

 

Education system should not prevent members of the minority of the minority cultural understanding ולשון society as a whole, and should not hurt her state sovereignty.

Level of education must be compliant with standards set by the general authorities authorized.

Entrance to the schools of the minority must be considered optional and not mandatory.

 

In other words, the state's obligation under this Convention is to enable minority groups to maintain separate schools, provided that this autonomy is used to attacks sovereign state or the general education requirements or ability to integrate the life of society and state.

 

Access to broader represents the Fourth-ILO (International Labor Organization) since 89 '(entered into force in 1991 but ended with ratification by a very small number of countries not including Israel) in relation to minority indigenous peoples in independent Time. (Hereinafter: the Treaty-ILO)

 

This Covenant recognized the government's responsibility for development, cooperation & ACTION systematic, while sharing the peoples concerned, to protect the rights of those peoples and to ensure continued existence.

Actions such as these will include the following

 

Ensure equal enjoyment of rights by the opportunities given to state laws and regulations other populations.

Promoting the full recognition of the rights of the social, economic and cultural of the peoples and respect for social and cultural identities, מנהגיהם ומסורותיהם and respect למוסדותיהם.

Help peoples concerned eliminating any gaps socio - אקונומיים which could be existing between the indigenous population of other members of the national community, in a manner appropriate to their life style שאיפותיהם.

 

But Stholth of this convention is very limited. As we shall see, try to adopt convention on the rights of peoples ילידיים not succeeded so far.

 

 

Finally, the Convention to protect the rights of migrant workers, immigrants and their families since the 90th, which entered into force in 2003 relate to minority groups and foreigners, not native, but contains prohibitions designed to allow migrants to maintain linguistic characteristics, their cultural and religious.

In addition to various kinds of art there is a specific reference to the status of minority groups in general and in particular in several other international documents.

Declaration of 78 'of the race-UNESCO concerning racist prejudices 4 emphasizes the strong need to protect the identity of groups within the development approval of the right to be different, prohibits the forced assimilation emphasizes the need for positive action by the state regarding groups weakened.

 

Even the UN Declaration on חיסולן of all forms of intolerance of discrimination by religion or belief since 81 gives certain rights to minorities.

The reference group Hmtzmtzmt rights of minorities stems not simple as stated history of these rights. Recognition of the fear of such rights, Hmtilot obligation on states, a fact also reflected attempts to adopt a more explicitly about art Kibbutz rights not got beautiful. Already in 1946 a committee was established pursuant to sub Smkoiotih the Commission (commission) of the UN Human Rights to promote the prevention of discrimination and protection of minorities. Sub - Committee cared about minorities, coordinated the wording of Article 27 for-ICCPR. Special Report is changed for minorities and recommended the creation of the declaration in favor of minority rights only .5 On 18.12.92 Assembly received the UN declaration on the rights of those belonging to a national minority, ethnic, religious or linguistic .6 (hereafter: the Declaration of the UN) United Nations considers the declaration of Sometimes the term "minority" instead of the term "minorities who learn" in violation of Section 27. Worthy to mention that the declaration also deals with national minorities and not only linguistic minorities, ethnic or cultural.

 

Most of the articles of the declaration relate to debts that the state take on itself. S. 1 calls on countries to protect the identity of a national, ethnic, cultural, religious language of the minorities, to promote and encourage conditions that the identity, while taking תחיקתיים and other means. This is a more positive approach S. 27 more easy to give her then expands, the total debt also positive to encourage and promote the country's debts, not only did not prevent or interfere with the groups to maintain separate identity.

 

Article 2 states to declare that the more a national minority who, ethnic, religious or linguistic right to have:

 

מתרבותם enjoy, express and perform the usual דתם, language use private and public, freely and without interference of any kind of discrimination.

Participate effectively in life the cultural, religious, social, economic and public

Are actively participating in decisions relating to or concerning the minority area of residence and the national minority, and when it is also regional and, in a manner appropriate to local law.

S. Secretary of the declaration 2 S to 27-ICCPR language, but is styled on a more positive - "shall be right" versus "not Tisll right", and without reference terminology "in countries where there are minorities," and cancellation of the distinction between minorities seemingly "new "L"i years." In addition to more that belong to a minority shall be right:

 

Establish institutions hold their own

Establish and hold without any discrimination free peaceful relations with other members in the minority and other information belonging to minorities, including those located outside the state.

These sections are sections that have a dimension. Networking external institutions and the establishment of national and international demand organization. According to most approaches, Dooknit interpretation in this context does not make sense, it is difficult to assume that the drafters intended the statement to creating relationships based on Aindbidoeli, since then the statement does not add anything to the Promised rights and minority groups. Indeed, it is not clear that the articles of the declaration on the rights to add a standard and the accompanying freedom of association. But there is highlighting that the state may not restrict the rights of members of minorities and freedoms of life in which contact with others.

 

Section 3 makes clear that the more that belong to the group is allowed to exercise their rights and they themselves together with others.

 

Article 4 stipulates that the state guarantee minority members to fully enjoy their human rights ומחירויותיהם basic, without any discrimination and equality before the law fully. There are more that belong to the minority the right to freely express the properties of their group and develop the תרבותם, לשונם, דתם, מנהגיהם ומסורותיהם, except for when behaviors are directly violating the law in a country or international standards when .7 opposing the state to provide those details offer opportunities to learn the Hmm language or even be educated in it. Article 4 also establishes the need for encouraging knowledge about the history and culture of the minority by the state. Together with this bold and that the minority may have to "acquire knowledge about society as a whole."

 

Article 5 states that have legitimate interests to the details that belong to the minority group in determining the policies and of international cooperation and international.

 

Article 6 stipulates that the states cooperate to promote mutual understanding and security and to ensure the promotion of the rights mentioned statement.

 

Article 8 (4) declaration emphasizes what is in each document dealing with the rights of minorities: the exercise of these rights is prohibited will be any threat to the territorial integrity, sovereignty or political independence of the country. This section comes expressed concern do we do with the balance brought Hmoflgt carefully about the rights of minorities recognition: Recognition of this is designed to prevent the forced הטמעתם or הפליתם or רדיפתם, but does not give sanction or threat Lbdlnot the integrity of the state or independence.

 

Proper to compare the provisions of the declaration, that has power even if the guide does not charge, with instructions Hmrhicot far much more in the draft convention on national minorities from ethnic 19798 (hereinafter: the draft Convention on national ethnic minorities). This draft was prepared by representatives of international organizations and representatives of minority groups, and the broad international support.

 

In addition to existing foundations Declaration, a draft Convention on the right to speak of minorities to self-determination. It prohibits the forced assimilation, genocide, deportation or transfer כפויים. Draft talking about recognition of minority and special representation of a country internationally. She speaks about territorial rights of personal autonomy, Hibdlot, joining other state, the right to self-managed development. Also worthy of note that the draft Announces Debt saving trust of the minority against the state (Article 28).

 

Status even more there is a weak draft declaration on the rights of indigenous minorities .9 This draft of the declaration and not a treaty, and it is a moot until such a backlash that seems to have a real chance to be a steak any declaration (that is, as noted, absent an attacker requires).

 

Draft recognizes the right to self-determination born in the minority, their own institutions with full representation in a free country, and owns the right to hold and develop land that were owned by a traditional group. To be held מו"מ to be cut down agreement - should be שלצדדים what to give - they have rights (and obligations). Laundryman says: Cshanshi community began to manage מו"מ - each one comes with a cargo of rights. These rights are a kind of natural, nobody gave them, and in principle one can not take them away. This means discussing what each of the people willing to donate for the Community framework - when the frame is the product of agreement - convention.

In light of the above may be loaded this argument as well \ hierarchy exists substantial international law. At the top level, there are absolute norms or יוס Kogns. These norms top most international law, and require the whole world, even countries opposed them . It is not possible to violate them or prescribe them. You can change just by creating a new norm in international - with the same weight. These norms Sumtot fact the basis of agreement which is a stone הבוחן Hmvss the international court. S. 53 and 64 establish that the Treaty of Vienna Convention shall be mainly inactive (void) If, contrary shall be absolute in international norm, whether foreground absolute norm of the Convention or which is her story. Despite the above, it is problematic with the norms יוס Kogns: (1) There is no specific content for all היוס Kogns. Fourth is just the norm defined this acceptable norm which is recognized by the international community, but not determined which norms are considered יוס Kogns. (2) never received the consent rule - for sweeping global norms יוס Kogns, no, not after the Vienna conference. And there the matter norms היוס Kogns have to bring evidence המלומדים numbers and said it has forces to decide these issues \ \ \ global government

 

The government refers to the idea that the global can be a common political framework for all human beings in the world or most of them, a "United States of Earth." Supporters of the idea believe that the only authorities to frame a global scale you can deal with those issues properly scope worldwide, both in the field of human rights and environmental quality in the field. Against this idea, opponents argue that the great power held Shitrcz of such a government will be the same oppression Ollachfih. Map of the world since 1897 which marked territories under the control of the British Empire ruled an empire in history - especially arm of force - in broad expanses of the world, like the Roman empire or the British. In history there are many more examples - whether they are individuals, tribes, cities or countries - under the rule of joint union, if the consent and if the joint force. In fact, today all humans continents divided into areas of policy frameworks, as the number -192, which בקודקודיהן are different types of "governments". Model State of nationality, ie, sovereign state (there is no longer any authority above), that all human beings are living in one of the nation, currently serves as a model central state power. However, I never held a national one, which his sons were all one country, and in all countries of the world live many minorities, who sometimes שיעורם population is very significant. These conditions, which the national ideal that "natural right" of all is to have him with an independent state, while it was a sexual conflicts follow blood. Following World War I was a government attempt to establish a global figure of a member הלאומים, and after World War II was continued, the United Nations. However, the last, like the first, suffers from many structural failures, which is the main powers are mainly Representations (as the presidential institution in Israel), and executive powers. Specifically in Europe, the cradle of a model "nation states", in recent decades is the massive consolidation, which many countries מסרו major powers into the hands of the European Union, ההולך built kind of a joint central government. Role of any government is arranging the relationship between individuals in society by laws relating to a wide range of areas of life, but to humanity as one global government is not yet Kama is designated her. Organizations based on voluntary international conventions such as the World Trade Organization or the International Court of Justice are ניצנים possible such a government. One of the major among these organizations - government calling for the establishment of a global government is a "movement הפדרליסטים World" (WFM), Hmdgish that the governmental structure, the desired state is the structure of the World Federal Democracy, under which the level of central government, provincial rule works (such as the United States-States ) and the rule of local authorities that certain powers in their hands, and saved במסגרתן rule of separation authorities. World can be found many examples of the functioning of such a federal structure, like the United States, Switzerland, India and others. Believe in different religions, such as הבהאיים Odt Haoaomoto, see to achieve the global government One of the unity of humanity, and offer it through language Ttnal international conventions, such as Esperanto. The democratic right of the argument centers worldwide is that the government only allows the exercise of the right of every person equal representation B"n Yahul "world. Furthermore, the era of globalization where the technologies of communication and transportation have made the world a global village, the management of his question occurs: Can not say until תוקם global political framework can be described as the company's World Nrcistit "to some extent. As long as each State enjoys full sovereignty on the area population, the international community not to protect the legitimate interests at all in the field of human in that country, such as the protection of human rights against crimes - war or protecting the natural treasures from the destructive exploitation of pollution. Hhitcnot terms of technology, whether for a hundred years imperial Rome were able to communicate with over the great empire by messengers on horses רכובים ships, it is clear that the era of the Internet and satellite technology is not currently drives to hold the frame - a global political scale. But the biggest barrier standing in the world is an idea the government מיעוטם וחולשתם political supporters of it. In addition, supporters of democracy Hmtgonnt afraid that many people living planet not gone yet complementary to democracy, so it would be extremely dangerous Lhihfz the promotion of democracy worldwide. Between people who stand out Tziddo a gradual but consistent work of the Federal Government can specify the global philosopher Immanuel Kent (which discusses in this connection to the eternal since 1795), ווינסטון Churchill, Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi Bertrnd Russell. But first have to diagnose the reasons that prevented this distinction, and we can understand the proposed method - the natural and historic right in most cases, the attack on the natural right to the name of history comes this way: The right claims to be the natural right of the human mind can discern

It, which recognize the right to everything; But history) including Anthropology (

Teaches us that the right does not exist; instead of uniformity, we estimated

Find an infinite variety of ideas on the right or justice. In other words,

תיתכן not right if there is no natural justice principles that are not available can be changed,

But history shows us that all principles of justice are? Change. E? Possible

Understand the significance of the attack on behalf of natural history right before

Know the island? Complete relevance of this argument. First of all, "accepted the humanity

As a whole "does not face any essential natural right of its existence. Some of the

Largest natural Bmori correct * If the right kind of claim is a natural rational,

Discovery guess in advance the care wisdom, and therefore will not be known to all the natural right:

Although there is no natural right to view shall be known among פראים. 1 In other words,

If Nocih that there is no principle of justice that Huchs somewhere or ever, yet

Not be proved that any denial is justified or reasonable. Furthermore, it was

Always known different concepts of justice כוחם beautiful peoples at different periods

 

Different. Is absurd to claim discovery of a large number more of these concepts

Modern research has influenced in a manner that the basic question. Above all, do not

Only the knowledge of a wide variety of concepts is not the rate of correct and non? As far

From being an idea of settling with the natural right? Although the condition is primary

Growth of this idea: the recognition of the existence of a variety of concepts is the right motive

בה"א news in the search for natural right. If you should have any significance

For rejecting the natural right to the name of history, from the court to have her and not the basis for

Historical evidence. Gnawing criticism must be philosophical about the possibility of

Its existence of natural right or the option to meet? Audit-related

Any way with the "history".

The conclusion regarding the failure? Existence of natural right deriving from the variety of concepts of right

No less an ancient political philosophy itself. Similar philosophy

Begun arguing that a variety of political concepts of the right demonstrates the failure? Existence of true

Or the natural character agreed) conventional (all true. 2 the opinion that

Ncna named "קונבנציונליזם". To clarify the significance of the rejection of the current

Right to the name of natural history, we must first catch the specific difference

הקונבנציונליזם between, on the one hand, and the "historical sense" or "consciousness

Historic ", which were typical to a computer hundreds Ninth? Ten twenties, from the

The other side. 3

הקונבנציונליזם put pre distinction between nature Lkonbnzih) agreed (

The basic distinction is that in all. Implies the dignity of her nature is not superior

Rate dignity of cuttable convention or company, or nature is the norm.

Thesis right and justice are the result consensus, meaning that there is no appropriate basis for justice

In nature, that ultimately they are against nature, is a decision ושיסודם Community

Arbitrary, explicit or implied. Do not fit the basis of justice but no sex

Consensus, agreement could indeed breed peace, but she can not procreate

Truth. In contrast, modern חסידי seen historically rejected the assumption

Fundamental nature is the norm, as they see the argument household; are rejected

The assumption of the natural sublime dignity of all human acts. Not at all, or they

Catch the person plants, including the changing concepts of justice, natural

Equally as much as other things הממשיים, or they claim לדואליזם Basic

Between the domain the domain of nature or history of freedom. In the second, they suggest

Man's World, a world of human creativity, far from the serene nature. On

According to this, they do not take up the concepts of right and non? True concepts arbitrary

ביסודם. They try to discover the סיבותיהם; they try to make the diversity

Have built their sequence; when they attach to them the actions of freedom are

Emphasize the fundamental difference between freedom and arbitrary.

What's the significance of the difference seen between the old and the modern? Hkonbnzion?

Entrepreneur is a special form of philosophy הקלסית. It is clear that deep differences

Between הקונבנציונליזם position and takes Plato, * for example. But opponents

הקלסיים agree most basic point: The two sides appreciate the distinction

Hkonbnzih between nature and the distinction is fundamental. Since this distinction IMPLIED

The idea of philosophy. Philosophize means to get to the cave of light the sun,

Namely, to the truth. The cave is world opinion contrary informational. Opinion given

Changed. הבריות can not live, which means they can not live together, if

Opinions not based on the company's order. This opinion is an opinion or authority

Eg public or surround the IDF World ".** thus philosophize means to get

The example to the public knowing mainly private. The example is public

Originally inadequate attempt to respond to questions of truth or reconciliation eternal order. 4

From the perspective of the eternal order, view order infinite expectation is coincidental

Or arbitrary; it does not taste verify the validity of its substantial but Order

Company or Lkonbnzih. The basic assumption of הקונבנציונליזם therefore it is not

Philosophy, a vision to capture the eternal. Modern opponents win

Natural rejected the idea just this. Words, all human thought

History is, hence not able to catch anything eternal. While Sldat

הקדמונים, philosophizing means abandonment cave, the opinion of my son? Our time,

All philosophizing belongs fundamentally L"a all historic, "many L"t", L"tz Ibiliztzih "

IDF surround the world ", ie to what Plato called cave. We named this opinion Ncna

"היסטוריציזם". Noted earlier rejection right natural history is not in our name

Based on historical evidence but on the philosophical criticism of the option

 

 

Existence or the possibility of knowledge of natural right. Now that we are celebrating

Philosophical criticism that it is not Bmovhk criticism of the natural right

Or the moral principles at all. This is a criticism of human thought when she

Herself. However, criticism of the right natural filled an important role in shaping

ההיסטוריציזם.

Ninth century ההיסטוריציזם plant? Ten sponsored by faith can be

To know the eternal, or at least guess. But slowly? Arar is a little faith

Binkoto protective of him. Suddenly, he appeared in the form בזמננו adult. Formation

ההיסטוריציזם not fully incomprehensible. In the current knowledge of hard to say

Where and when the evolution of modern rift occurred, and its majority-Jan access

"Non-history", who rule in all earlier philosophy. To

Orientation convenient quick start as soon as the movement which has risen, which was at first

Sub? Bottom, to the surface and control the science society song waves. This moment

First was the growth of the historical school.

Thoughts Shnho the school was not the nature of historical theory. Historical scholar Tzmhh the reaction revolution

Pure rule Oaikrtzrftit

And doctrines natural right to revolution who prepared this huge resistance from the devil .*

Violent past of the historical school emphasized the need for imparting knowledge and the existence

Traditional arrangement or later. This could be done without criticism

Natural right when she herself. Indeed, the natural right to pre? Not modern

In Tmch irresponsible detained or what the order was timely here

And now to the natural or rational order. However, a similar school founders

Historically understood in some way received universal principles and abstract

She has not any effect revolutionary, disturbing, subversive, as it

Thought, this effect is not dependent on any question whether the principles הנידונים

Temples usually conservative course of action or revolutionary. Since the recognition

Forces the universal principles of human judge accepted the order,

Or what he live here and now, the natural light or rational order;

Probably it does not live here and now comes the stairs norm

Universal Non-changing. 5 recognition of universal principles tend

Thus prevent heart מהבריות identify an entire social order with them Shoaid

 

 

 

Fate or accept it. She tends to deny them from the earth. She tends to

לעשותם foreigners, and foreigners on the earth.

In fact, denial of meaning? If no existence? Of

Universal norms, השמרנים great Shisdo the historical school

Hiddo continued and even the effort of the Revolutionary יריביהם .* This effort received

השראתו the concept of a specific natural. He was against these targets are? Natural

Are against the conventional or super? Natural or belonging to the next world. המהפכנים

Put, may we say, natural is always individual, hence single

Is not it? Natural or conventional. The only human was to be relieved or

To free himself, so that it can not just ask for the approval but also the version of

His happy. This means that, but it was one single universal purpose

Huzvh all humans: the natural right of every individual had a right that belongs

Uniform manner to each individual. But uniformity does not say natural, hence

.** Bad it was clear that? Can Lhfrit the respective full rights

Natural diversity of information. The only kinds of rights that the Stro

Social life and were not unified rights were "historical": the rights of

English, for example, unlike human rights. Differences in local time provided, Cmdomh,

Basic methods, safe with the anti האינדיבידואליזם? Social Universal

These? Natural. Historical school found no differences in the place and time

In terms of justice: there is no need to disclose of course. At most we can say

She found the value, the magic and the inner place drown once,

Or she found the Alionoto of the local temporary universal. Be careful

Than to say that the tendency of Hktznt of people like רוסו determined scholar

History indicates that the local temporary value on the universal. As a result,

What claimed Universal finally found something derived from a limited place and time,

Theory of natural law

הסטואיקנים, * for example, was probably appears purely reflection of the situation

Times a particular local society? Disintegration Greek city.

המהפכנים's efforts were directed against all belonging to the next world, or 6

All transcendence. Transcendence is not the exclusive domain of religion Bengali. She

Was enclaves, and of course very important, the original meaning of philosophy

Search the political order after the natural or the best political order.

The best, as Plato Shbinohu Oaristo, should be changed

Mostly from the here and now live or any arrangements האקטואליים. Opinion on this

Transcendence of the best political order has undergone a deep change in the way

Understanding of ה"ק dummy "השמונה century? Ten, but still Nstamarh this term

Of the same century. If not so would not התיאורטיקנים of the French Revolution

Can condemn the vast majority of the social arrangements that were

Ever exist. Deny the significance, if not the existence, of the norms

Universal, destroyed the historic school with only the base of each

Efforts to exceed beyond the topical. Therefore possible to describe the ההיסטוריציזם

Kuwait's modern way of this world, when he was much more extreme radicalism

French השמונה of the century? Ten. There is no doubt שההיסטוריציזם acted like

Intended to make the people of? גמורים House "in this world." Since all

Becomes a universal principle at least the majority of human beings and shelter by force,

Hmait ההיסטוריציזם valuable principles in favor of universal principles

History. He believed that understanding the movement, heritage, historic condition, people can

The person to get to the principles that are no less objective than philosophy

Political anticipation? Historitzistit more ancient claim to them; more about this, they

There are no abstract or universal, and therefore harmful to life or indiscretion

Really human, but מוחשיים or unique? Principles שהולמים the period

Particular people or the specific principles for specific gentry or people

Certain.

Kenny try to find out that in order to measure their objective was

The relative specific historical circumstances, the historical scholar Hoaida

Historical studies in many large importance than they ever had. But

From what you can expect on the historical research was not the result of * Sdglh Universal natural law / And here's why and for what reasons Sntbar Otamo with - global warming

 

 

Average global temperature (the surface) from -1856 to 2004

 

 

Difference between the average temperature during the period 2004-1995 for 1980-1940

Global warming or global warming (in English: Global warming) is a term used to describe the immigration observed during the last hundred years, the average temperature of Atmosfirt earth and oceans on the face. Intergovernmental Panel - climate change in the government of the United Nations (IPCC), engaged in concentration data heat up the world, think global average temperature has risen at -0.74 degrees Tzlzivs (with space bar - the basis of ± 0.18) between 1906 to 2005. [1]

There is a match between the rise of temperature rise in the amount of two-carbon - oxygen and other greenhouse gases Batmosfira that causes the greenhouse effect increases. The-IPCC believes that there is a very high likelihood of human activity is the primary source of increasing the amount of greenhouse gases, mainly as a result of the liberation of these gases when burning air Dlki מאובנים to energy production and agricultural operations. Two major observations associated with the increase in the amount of greenhouse gases human activities. The first observation is the difference between the gas concentration גאוגרפיים different regions. There is a match between populated areas and high concentration in greenhouse gases. The second observation is the presence of איזוטופים that do not have a natural source.

Change in temperature is about one aspect of a broader climate change recently. -IPCC expects the temperature may rise in the -1.4 to 5.8 degrees Tzlzivs between 1990 and -2100 [2]. This is expected to lead to additional climate changes including the rise of the sea surface, and changes in quantities and patterns of Precipitation. These changes may increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events such as the deluge, in, והוריקנים heat waves, to change the agricultural output, causing the withdrawal בקרחונים, reduce the amount of water flowing in the summer בנחלים, or contribute to biological destroyed. Although the warm up is expected to affect the number and עוצמתם of these events, it is hard to associate any particular event with a warm world, because many of the statistical evidence.

A small group of scientists dispute that the activities seen people complete an important role in current temperatures. Indeed there are elements of the island - the question of certainty what will be the size of the change in the future, Ooichoh politically aware public burning question is what needs to be done to reduce or to return back the warm future, and how results have to deal with.

Historical data of the temperature throughout the past 2,000 years according to different cycles, מוחלקים, Skalh over hundreds of years. Non Mohlk value of 2004 is also drawn to providing a point of reference.

Relative to the 1860-1900 period, global temperature has risen both on land and at sea Tzlzivs -0.75 degrees. Temperature at the bottom of the rose on Htrofosfira - 0.12 to 0.22 degrees Tzlzivs decade since 1979. Most investigators believe that the global temperature was fairly stable for a thousand or a thousand years before 1850, with various fluctuations, and that may have local, warm period like the Middle Ages in Europe, or the little ice age.

According to estimates of the Institute for the Study of Godard's space Nas"a, 2005 was extremely hot this year since the use became common in the reliable measurement across the world in late 19th century, when washing the previous record set in 1998 in several spellings of a Tzlzivs. Similar estimates were made by Hmtaurology global organization, but only on behalf of UK climate research concluded that 2005 was less warm than 1998. [3]

As part of the time depending question, there are different temperature records available. These series are based on different data, different levels of cost accuracy and reliability. Temperature records using the devices, soon spread worldwide, began around the year 1860; tend to believe that measurement errors due to urban heat island effect is small. You can get a long-term point of view different than testimonies about the past 1,000 years; debate on the evidence of these differences between them and [4]. המעידים marks the climatic changes during the past are clear for more than 50 years, where there are very detailed data. Satellite measurements of temperature Htrofosfira began in 1979.

[Edit] the warm world

 

 

 

Two concentration of carbon - oxygen for the past 400,000 years at its fastest since the industrial revolution; believe that changes in the Earth's path around the sun known name מילאנקוביץ cycles, factors למחזורים the era of ice every 100,000 years.

Global climate system varies both by natural factors, "internal" and in response to changes in humidity GSS "external; responsibility from an act by a person and who are not from an act by a person, including the activity of the sun, and a refugee of greenhouse gases by volcanoes.

Climate experts agree that the Earth's recent warming, but there is great disagreement regarding the reasons for this change, especially outside the scientific community.

 

 

Hmtoamt vary the amount of two-carbon - oxygen Batmosfira global temperature in recent years -650000

Adding two carbon - oxygen (CO2) or מתאן (CH4) Latmosfira, without other changes, Tnta heat the surface of the earth. In fact, greenhouse gases create a natural greenhouse effect, without it, according to an estimate, temperature on earth was low by about -30 degrees Tzlzivs, the Earth would be non-living. For this reason, not true to say that there is a dispute between those Trusted S"m "and those opposing" the "theory two extra carbon - oxygen Latmosfira of the earth will לטמפרטורה higher than the surface of the earth, without the effects of indirect regulation. Instead, the debate is the question of what will be the overall impact of the additional two carbon - oxygen ומתאן Latmosfira, considering other factors.

[Edit] slip of greenhouse gases

 

 

Trends of greenhouse gases

Hbarto of mineral fuels, including power stations that use oil or coal, Gzi Hmflt of cars, houses orbit craft and slip Mzhmot of the human environment produces some - 22 billion tons of carbon a two - oxygen and other greenhouse gases emitted Latmosfira of the globe each year. Almost half of humanity remained in refugee Batmosfira [5]. Agriculture Animals, דשנים, natural gas, rice fields, מטמנות trash, coal and other sources of origin of human activities contribute to approximately -450 million tons of מתאן every year [6]. Concentrations of carbon האטמוספיריים Two - oxygen and מתאן grew at 31% and -149% respectively over the levels that were before the industrial era since 1750. These concentrations are significantly higher concentrations at any other time during the past 650,000 years, the period Slgbih received reliable data, through study of ice cores. Based on less direct geological evidence believe that high levels of these two carbon - oxygen were recently 40 million years ago. Three-quarters refugee from human made in the past 20 years were caused due to burning of mineral fuel. Overwhelming number of other refugee from changes in land use, mainly due to deforesting forests. [7]

Measuring - devices longest ongoing concentration of carbon performed two - oxygen Batmosfira began in 1958 in Hawaii Bmaona Holocaust. Since then, the average annual values came to be monotonous from -315 ppmv [8]. In 2003 concentration reached -376 ppmv. Antarctic data show an increase similar to [9]. Monthly measurements indicate small seasonal fluctuations.

[Edit] Sources of the slip of greenhouse gases

 

 

Slip of greenhouse gases by human activity according to different sectors, as for 2000.

Globally, most of the refugee greenhouse gases originating from human activity Msrft mineral fuels. The rest divided between the "fugitive fuel" (destitute during production of transportation fuels), slip production processes (excluding fuel and stall), and agriculture. These contributed to 5.8%, 5.2% and 3.3% respectively in 1990. Current data are clear comparison [10].

Approximately - 17% are the result of the refugee stall מאובנים to fuel electricity production.

A small percentage of refugee come from natural or human biological, and - 6.3% from refugee ממתאן nitrogen oxide from agriculture.

Processes of feedback loops reinforce, such as anticipated release of up to 70,000 million tons of מתאן prisoners Bvicot קפואה always land in Siberia, which began to melt down due to the rise of temperature, may lead to more significant slip of the greenhouse gases [11].

Slip of the human other pollutants - mainly אירוסולים סולפטיים - create a cooling effect; This may explain the level and / records observed cooling temperatures in the 20th century [12], although even that may be a thing of the intervention stemmed this natural cycle. Ntbar already Science Nature 13 reality for all the reasons which he has reason, and were four:

The material and shape, which operates 14 purpose.

Of them, and that close and from far away 15, and four of these is called the reason for sexual intercourse.

 

ומהשקפותיהם 16 who do not share them, that 'Ithdr ויתרומם is executed and the form and purpose, and said that he often cause sexual intercourse to include these three reasons, and they shall he runs the world and form and purpose.

 

Goal in this chapter explain how you say it often and he was acting form of the world, and even purpose.

Val Ttrid מחשבתך here the matter of renewing the world and is charged according to their opinion of him, that Idovr thus far correctly on this matter 17. And intent here that he often runs the private enterprises in the world, as he runs the world as a whole 18.

 

And says:

Already Ntbar science of nature 19 that these four kinds of reasons, a proper reason to investigate all of them also another reason, and then finds reasons to talk Hmthuoh these next four to 20, they also find reasons, and reasons, not reasons to end the first.

 

Such as being made of this work is that, when used for that work, and did not stop to reach a result to the first impulse, he really running for all these האמצעיים. And, if the letter was a grand drive letter home, and גימל motivate, motivate וגימל door, door led huh, what did not and it will be up to 21 without a purpose, if so Namod with Hha through fable 22. There is no doubt that the Hha is motivating the alphabet והגימל door, rightly stated that the movement thousandth Hha follow it.

 

And through this action relates to the reality '. Even were the workers who were coming from, like 23 * Snbar, the reason is far from being 23 runs. [Kto]

 

[Each way forward otherwise, and last - of the]

And thus forms a natural 24 harmfulness 25, נמצאם If Nthka them, forward them to necessarily form the material otherwise Hmatdt this get this shape, the shape and the second forward to her other, to finished 26th to the last, it is essential in moderation these forms, which they Reason for moderation, they form this coming, the same way in all the latest reality is the 'sometimes.

 

Think and 3 in which he said that the last shape for all the world, is a clue to the past that it says what the Post Arsto nature, she is present and not damaged * 26. That the shape is there, naturally, not all distinct.

According to him we said that there often, he was the last form of the world, as a matter of small hook shape with a material that forms the material, he shall be to form the body and sometimes 27.

Not the way to say this! But as each has a shape that is not what he had if the shape, form, and if damaged and un-wasteful Huweito; so, this relation itself, the ratio of 'the beginning of each 28 distant reality. Hbora that in reality everything is 29, and 30 Source existence, call it on "wealth", as one of Snbar מפרקי this article 31.

[While we are not business Bfilosfih theology, but we can learn here what purpose Ssisth close and far end party, and this is the definition of state as we've first reason is called far end summary Although this relation to us

 

 



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