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The phenomenon of "brain drain" from the state of Israel

מאת: Alon Meninלימודים בחו"ל23/08/20151594 צפיות שתף בטוויטר |   שתף בפייסבוק

The phenomenon of "brain drain" from the state of Israel

In those recent years, citizens of many countries are living outside their country, than any other time in recent history. As we see over the years, the number of people that moving across the international borders is expected to grow up, and even more in the future [2].        Haupt & Janeba [7] said that in recent decades (from 1990) we are witnessing a broad of international migration is high on the international agenda. The reason for the growing discussion and more profound observation is because, the consequences of emigration to another country are relevant to a variety of issues that are flaming, for all government in those countries. They [7] add that we find changes such as low productivity reflected by long GNP (Gross National Product), aging of the population remains, unemployment and employment instability, acceleration in "brain drain" - and "receiving drain". We see also beyond the capital flows of finance to countries immigration, debate from human rights, social integration, and a fear of strangers, human trafficking and national security.

The implications of international migration to these and other issues affecting the populations in the countries of origin as well as destination countries of migrants moving across international borders.

The Israeli Absorption Ministry in cooperation with the Central Bureau of Statistics of the State of Israel, published in 2013 [16], a numeric estimate that showing a scene in which over 700 thousand Israelis live out from Israel. Immigration largely diffused on three key regions - Americas (USA and Canada), Western Europe mainland Australia. The total number is almost 12.5% ??of the Jewish population in Israel. This Check were carried out to examine whether they are Israelis or the government need to cancel their citizenship.

The purpose of this article is to show that the problem is deeper beyond the wave of the global mobility of populations, which is not a new phenomenon at this time.

The problem increases when a group of the population who chose to move to the home and foreign homeland to Israel associated with gender population easily recognizable, well-educated, high quality, and very significant proportionate share of the population. The research findings of Israeli Institutions (Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Civil absorption, Central Bureau of Statistics) indicate a very specific population groups that typically arrive capabilities common denominator of education, training and gender academic education (bachelor's degree - PhD). The phenomenon becomes like a wave and trend among citizens who came to Israel from the former Soviet Union [8].

The phenomenon of international migration of workers or students is called in the jargon - "brain drain", sparked considerable debate in the last decade [9]. Brain drain refers to the passage of international resources in the form of human capital, and particularly relates to immigration of relatively well-educated people who come from developing countries to developed countries. Comparative data recent immigrants because in 2000 there were 20 million migrants educated and skilled employment in OECD member countries. This is an increase of 63.7% in ten years, versus 14.4% migration of unskilled immigrants only [5]. As presented, the majority of these skilled migrants come from developing countries and they will look for the way the keys countries. The reasons for brain drain "increased well known.

On numerous possibilities academic globalization of the world economy has strengthened the tendency of human capital to look for the sources of employment, quality education, personal security, abundance and overall quality of life, thus contributing to the start of the transition process no end in sight.

In the other hand, increased demand for educated populations, professionalism and quality. Australia and Canada have been since 1980, showed an increase absorption selectively quality and definition and gradual clear, decisive policy. This step seems to be engaged in an international competition to attract global talent. Wildasin [12] To convince that the growing demand for educated and skilled workers brought greater openness to immigration policies in many developed countries, when it comes to skilled workers, are needed, especially well-educated. Developments in technology, combined with a falling birth rate, aroused concern in countries like Canada, Britain and Germany, who adapted their immigration policies to encourage hiring educated. Germany, for example, traditionally offered very little permanent migration opportunities, expanded the opening of immigrants educated in subjects required, such as computer experts.

Migration of educated Israel is part of a global phenomenon and probably will grow in scope in the future. The information revolution enables job search and housing abroad more easily, and reduces the cost of his stay abroad while maintaining regular contact with relatives and friends in their country of origin [1]. As a result, the migration of people with higher education in Europe has risen significantly in scope in the last 15 years. The total stock of immigrants in OECD countries, where the vast majority of developed countries, growing by 64% per decade between 1990 and 2000. The increase was more widely for immigrants from less developed countries - especially from Latin America and the Caribbean 93%, 113% and Africa [5].

The State of Israel is examining the phenomenon for years, but until recently (2008) insisted not to name her volunteer real brain drain [15]. Only in this time years, as illustrated in the findings of the Office of National Statistics (Graph 1), the firm presented findings where academic professionals turn:

Source - http://www.cbs.gov.il/www/publications/alia/t3.pdf

Becker at al [1] describe Italy, despite being a rich country than Israel, is an exception among developed countries, and reveals patterns similar to those of a decline in Israel and suffers from a major problem of brain drain. At the end of the 90s, Italy has lost over 3% of all university graduates each year.

Compared to Italy and Israel, other developed countries, has a benefit from a positive balance of absorption in excess of skilled immigrants, or at least does not decrease, on leaving. The Italian labor market, similar to the Israeli one, characterized by traditions and institutions that protect workers with jobs and less appreciate those without education [4]. Educated young people in Italy suffer from the lack of competition in the labor market, and the process lacked transparency search employees based on a personal and family connections rather than qualifications. Israel and Italy, despite their affiliation to the group of developed countries, reveal migration patterns similar to those of the poorest countries.

Before analyzing the findings and conclusions. We should be noted the existence of academic articles economic argument about the possible positive effects of "brain drain" on the status of education in the country. (Source) said that in developing countries you can see in education the "lottery ticket" for immigration, so it is very existence stimulates education and the educated man's chance to emigrate - that is when there is a brain drain, the incentive to acquire greater education. As a result, the brain drain situation may eventually create a positive impact on the total number of educated people in the country.

However, Edwards & Rugy [6], said it was a mistake to think that the positive effects, indirect, increasing brain drain of the direct effect, it is a negative effect!

If so, why growing phenomenon in Israel every few years?

Like the existence of social processes, even here the reasons are varied and come from different disciplines and backgrounds from the lives of Israeli citizens, I chose to present the most primary reasons [8]:

Reasons of economic - financial

I. The Israel's tax burden on the middle class largely educated academically and professionally. When the distribution of tax income in Israel is among of the highest in the world. This difficulty creates a great incentive productive population (at the rate of the general population is so small even compared to developed countries) to seek their future in other countries. The trend of the ease and benefits for large parts of the non - producers, and make it difficult in the other hand (with a target to create a balance in state revenues) on the other encouraging decline of educated young people.

II. The "cost of living" in Israel - is a major factor that raises questions educated population groups. The State of Israel "leader", not with pride, the table of OECD countries families are at risk of poverty reach. Newspaper of economic that "calcalist" (central economic newspaper in Israel [17] published a comparative survey with other countries in Western Europe with the State of Israel, and Israel "leads" overall the in "cost of living". This reality is reflected in inflated prices for consumer goods, energy (electricity, water, and gas), apartment (rent or purchase), education and medical services. Pupils that working in high-tech or engineer or doctor, get hired by twenty thousand shekels (about 5200$) a month on average, feels that he finds it difficult to support his family. Half of his income and about two-thirds of all supplement his income tax authorities go to: income tax, social security, health tax, VAT, , licenses, fees IBA. Much better condition than the unemployed or working at minimum wage. But, in many cases, because of his connections and his education requested and consumed in other developed countries, has the option to migrate and significantly improve their standard of living.

III. Height and salary bill - the cost of living further requested in the issue of salaries, especially for professionals and university education. Students who go to Europe and the US for doctoral studies in the best universities, giving up many times for the job at universities in the country upon completion of their studies, despite their desire to live in Israel, due to the high wage differentials. United States, market forces and competition for professors / researchers are excellent salaries. University salaries based on individual contracts and wage gaps between researchers and their counterpart's successful medium, or in demand among researchers such as economics, business administration, law and medicine, less popular areas, such as literature or sociology, can be very high. University lecturer country begins with salary of less than $ 2,000 per month. The young lecturer can choose the American market wages in excess of $ 5,000 Economist net if he or salary in excess of $ 8,000 net if it is a researcher in finance at business school.

Academic reasons - professional

IV. Due to cuts the support of the Ministry of Education on the university, denied the ability to increase faculty and research despite the increase in the number of students. Price reduction is increasing the teaching hours of each lecturer, inability to absorb lecturers, researchers, and teachers who must to teach many hours and not engaged in the research for which chose to attend university. These measures lead them to do no interest in the research or stay at the academic institution and looking for receive tempting offers from academic institutions outside the country.

For reasons beyond the spouse's career

V. This sometimes happens when one partner in the family gets a job offer (not only academic) out to Israel and the family is forced to make relocation to a foreign country. In this case, the organization of work of the spouse would see an alternative workplace for his / partner, hence the migration of the entire family unit.

Security situation - political

VI. It is no secret that the Israeli people suffer for many years due to the problematic security- political situation. Personal security and national security of the State of Israel leads many citizens to ask questions about their future and their children's future. (Source) shows that security is always nearby events (war / terrorist attacks), the number of applicants for job search beyond other countries, quieter and safer countries. We saw it after the "Lebanon War" and the recent operation in Gaza [14]. Beyond the prospect of integration into a larger and professionals with academic training.

Israeli educational system (school, school, academic studies)

VII. In the past years (1970 – 1980) the Israeli educational system has been known as a leader with in the developed countries. The main reason for this is that the administration would be apportioned where the superior education in priorities. Budgeting all kindergarten and education systems including academic system. Today expenditure, compared with the OECD countries is low. Israel is below the mean values ??of the OECD, began investing in preschool and basic - $ 4,058 versus 7044 boy child. Furthermore, Israel is investing approximately - $ 12,711 per student in front of 17,929 students, according to the OECD average [18]. Therefore, families and individuals that consider education a significant factor in the personal development and the right of a person chooses to raise their children in the country who also plans the budget According to the family's perspective.

For summary, present the reasons the in the following table summarizes. All factors that raise the question of mobility and the passage of the educated population to other countries:

Very relevant

Relevant

Not Relevant

Partner work

71%

8%

21%

Unemploymentin the country

81%

12%

7%

Interest in Work

35%

28%

37%

Income fromwork

44%

24%

32%

Taxation inIsrael

66%

15%

19%

Options andvariety of academic subjects

45%

25%

30%

Quality schools

75%

6%

19%

Political andsecurity situation

61%

22%

17%

Regulatorylevel

81%

13%

6%

The cost ofliving in Israel

75%

12.5%

12.5%

Source – http://www.calcalist.co.il/local/articles/0,7340,L-3389121,00.html

The phenomenon of brain drain should receive much more in-depth reference and serious, even before the reference to the issues of social - economic and security. Neglect and disregard of tackling this problem would not solve the problem, but only make it worse the situation is problematic, and if some may be irreversible.

For this purpose, the state should be accounted for in depth by creating benefits and insights are combined. Here are some suggestions, like similar models operated in various countries (Japan, Australia);

1. Integrated and comprehensive care that will address a number of factors out simultaneously, producing a positive impact to solving the problem:

2. Repair of taxation and the cost of living in the country, with reference to the general education system with all systems and levels of education. Together with the development of new sources of employment and interest that generate feasibility stay, and of course, a different attitude and more respect given population for this group, because they still carrying within the brunt of taxation, fostering the culture and the country's powerful forces.

3. Like the state of Australia which has become academic mobility profit factor greater incomes for institutions, as well as similar state of Japan, the Government of Israel and the Council for Higher Education must take a step which will leverage the marketing of Israeli academic institutions in a worldwide. Check in increased student will create a positive impact for everyone. For teaching staffs, for institutions and for the National Information found it is very difficult to market the country to external factors. Only Serious treatment and compensation issues payroll employment in various civil copyright oscillation and brain drain. For example, in the areas of healthcare professionals (hospitals, nurses, radiographers, pharmacy, doctors and interns) industrial professions (high-tech, robotics, biotechnology).

For summary, the brain drain from Israel is a global phenomenon that every country cope with the mapped data and the reasons for its objectivity. Cancel the problem and ignoring will create future problems that can shock and cause far-reaching demographic changes. It is desirable to deal with the problem, and the sooner is better.

Bibliography:

[1] Becker, S. Ichino, S. Peri, G.  How large is the "Brain Drain" from Italy? cesifo Working Paper 839,Munich (2003).

[2] Beine, M., Docquier F, Rappaport, H, Brain Drain and Economic Growth: Theory and Evidence, Journal of Development Economics. (2001) pp: 64,275-289.

[3] Carrington, W.J. Detragiache. E. How extensive is the brain drain? Finance & Development – June (1999) pp: 46-49.

[4] Checchi, D. Ichino A, Rustichini A. (1999), More Equal but Less Mobile. Education Financing and Intergenerational mobility in Italy and in the US, Journal of Public Economics, 74 (1999) pp: 351-393.

[5] Docquier. F. Lohest .O. Marfouk. Brain Drain in Developing Regions (1990-2000) IZA, Discussion Paper No. 1668, (2005).

[6] Edwards, C. De Rugy, V. International Tax Competition. A 21st-Century Restraint on Government, Policy Analysis, (2002) pp: 431.

[7] Haupt, A. Janeba. E. Education, Redistribution, and the Threat of Brain Drain, NBER Working Paper 10618 (2004).

[8] Moab .O. Ifrach. M. Proportionality generosity toward the working-age population in Israel compared to other OECD countries, a position paper. Shalem Center (2006).

[9] Mountford, A. Can a Brain Drain Be Good for Growth in the Source Country?, Journal of Development Economics 53 (1997) pp: 287-303.

[10] OECD, Trends in International Migration: Continuous Reporting System on Migration, Annual Report 2002,(2003) Paris.

[11] Vidal, J.-P.  The Effect of Emigration on Human Capital Formation, Journal of Population Economics 11(1998) pp: 589-600.

[12] Wildasin, D. E. Factor Mobility and Fiscal Policy in the EU: Policy Issues and Analytical Approaches, Economic Policy 31(2000) pp: 337-378.

 

 

 





 
     
     
     
   
 
אודות כותב המאמר:

Alon Menin

Free International University Of Moldova

Doctoral Program

 
     
   
 

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